Your external DNS is a mission critical business resource. Without it, no one can reach your website, email, or web applications. Additionally, poor DNS performance translates into slow access to your website and lost customers. The cost of outages or unacceptable latency can range from a few unhappy users to millions of dollars per hour depending on the scale of e-commerce. Recent high-profile attacks leveraging the DNS to take down enterprise websites have raised awareness of DNS outages. DDoS attacks are not the only threat. External name servers operate in a hostile environment and can be brought down in a number of ways, including: server failures, network failures, natural disasters, power outages and security breaches. The following are some best practices to help organizations to improve the performance, resiliency and fault tolerance of their external DNS.
Best Practice 1 - USE A HIDDEN MASTER
A hidden master is a name server that is not advertised and does not appear in any name server records. In other words, it is not known publicly on the Internet and does not answer any queries. The hidden master’s purpose is to provide zone transfers to a set of secondary name servers that are known publicly and answer queries.
Best Practice 2 - DISABLE RECURSION ON YOUR NAME SERVERS
Disable recursion on your hidden master and authoritative external nameservers. Turning off recursion reduces the vulnerability to denial of service attacks and cache poisoning, and helps improve performance.
Best Practice 3 - USE TSIG TO SECURE NAMESERVER TO NAMESERVER COMMUNICATIONS
Communication between the hidden master and secondary nameservers should be cryptographically authenticated using Transaction Signatures (TSIG). TSIG is much more secure than source IP address filtering which can be easily spoofed with UDP.
Best Practice 4 - PLACE NAMESERVERS CLOSE TO USERS
The latency of DNS lookups is important for your website. Long latency can translate into lost customers and revenue. Your authoritative nameservers answer queries from other nameservers on the Internet. To ensure a good user experience and fast access to your website, place your nameservers close to, or quickly accessible from the nameservers querying them. Optimally, this would involve placing nameservers in locations with good access to the Internet such as Internet Exchange Points (IXPs).
Best Practice 5 - MAKE YOUR DNS RESILIENT TO DDOS ATTACKS
DDoS attacks using DNS as the attack vector are on the rise. Increase resiliency to DDoS attacks with the extra query capacity and bandwidth of an anycast DNS cloud. To the world, the anycast cloud appears as a single IP address. In reality it is a network of geographically distributed nameservers. An anycast cloud is much more resilient to a DDoS attack than single unicast servers because it uses geo-location to specify what server answers a query and it has the combined capacity and bandwidth of all the servers.
Best Practice 6 - MAKE YOUR DNS DISASTER PROOF
Use redundancy to make your external DNS disaster proof. With unicast servers, this means at least two nameservers in different locations. A better alternative is an anycast DNS cloud to provide redundancy. If a nameserver in an anycast cloud goes down, it is automatically removed from the routing tables. In this way,
anycast adds redundancy and fault tolerance. With anycast, the highest level of redundancy is achieved with two separate clouds.
Best Practice 7 - USE ANYCAST DNS
Anycast has been in use for more than 10 years to provide name services for the root server on the Internet as well as many top-level domains including .CA. Anycast DNS is the optimal solution for fault-tolerance, DDoS resiliency and placing name servers close to users. For most organizations, building and managing their own anycast DNS infrastructure is too expensive and not practical. Fortunately, an anycast DNS service like D-Zone Anycast DNS can be easily added to your DNS infrastructure.
Learn more about D-Zone Anycast DNS or to sign-up for a free enterprise trial please contact us.